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The Burkholder update that I suggest here combines sound analysis with methods from cultural studies and ethnomusicology (interviews and participant observation, multi-sited ethnography (Marcus 1995), multi(web)sited ethnography (Koch 2013) and digital ethnography (Hsu 2014). Its research perspectives are: music-making as a practice that involves processes of music-making and production; music as a media product that involves reception and further processing of tracks; musician as an actor that involves all spheres that affect the musician as a human being and artist. The Referenzanalysekatalog (RAK) (catalogue to analyze the use of references) that I suggest here serves as a guideline and questionnaire: it shows the layers that are at stake when a musician remixes references from another place or time into his or her music. I define music as a media product, because cover arts, title and media appearances of the musician are each factored into how a track is perceived.
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In 2000 he also performed in Bosnia-Herzegovina, a country located in Southeastern Europe that was still reeling at the time from a war ranging from 1992 to 1995. This is when he opened himself up to the possibility of activism. Until visiting, Annen was low-key in the press, partly in an effort to remain an underground artist.
In addition, Annen has claim to a long list of multimedia projects. For one, he participates in POW!WOW! Hawaii, particularly its School of Music. There, he shares his knowledge of making music and his experience in the music business with youth as well as performing at POW!WOW! events and contributing various graphic design work. He also recently worked behind the scenes on a music video with Japanese artist Aoi as well as various projects with producers around the world, like in Spain and Shanghai.
Cultural production has entered a stage in which archived digital material can potentially be used at will;1 just like people combine words to create sentences (just like this sentence is written with a word-processing application), in contemporary times, people with the use of digital tools are able to create unique works made with splices of other pre-recorded materials, with the ubiquitous action of cut/copy & paste, and output them at an ever-increasing speed.2 This is possible because what is digitally produced in art and music, for instance, once it becomes part of an archive, particularly a database, begins to function more like building blocks, optimized to be combined infinitely.3 This state of affairs is actually at play in all areas of culture, and consequently is redefining the way we perceive the world and how we function as part of it. The implications of this in terms of how we think of creativity and its relation to the industry built around authorship are important to consider for a concrete understanding of the type of global culture we are becoming.
Because digital media consists in large part in optimizing the manipulation of experience-based material that before mechanical reproduction went unrecorded, the aim of this analysis, in effect, is to evaluate how ephemerality is redefined when image, sound, and text are digitally produced and reproduced, and efficiently archived in databases in order to be used for diverse purposes. In other words, what happens when what in the past was only ephemeral is turned into an immaterial exchangeable element, and most often than not some type of commodity? To begin in what follows I analyze how the regenerative remix functions as a type of bridge to a future in which constant updates and pervasive connectivity will become ubiquitous in all aspects of life.
The regenerative remix has its foundation in three other types of remixes, that preceded the time of the digital: the extended (popularized in disco culture when producers decided to make songs longer by extending the instrumental parts of tracks), the selective (explored by DJ producers who modified, deleted and added elements to create aesthetically different compositions of a pre-existing song which was recognizable as a type of version) and the reflexive (a meta-composition that allegorizes its source, much along the line of the selective remix; it may borrow from the extended remix as well in order to attain autonomy). All three types of remixes are found in music since the late 1970s and early 80s, and continue to play an important role in the production of new music genres.5
The most evident example of this in the United States is reports of physical abuse of African Americans by (for the most part) white police officers.6 Video uploads documenting police interaction with African Americans are pivotal documentation in the growing number of reports. The arguments on this are contentious and are of major concern to the United States on national and civic contexts. In other parts of the world, the regenerative remix played a major role during the Arab Spring, particularly in Egypt and Tunisia, where activists on the streets used social media to self-organize against their respective governments.7
This turned out to be a process of control. The process of recording sound in a sense is driven by the human interest to domesticate noise. Indeed, humans strive to domesticate everything around them, including the environment, plants, animals and viruses. And it is with viruses with which humans appear to keep a contentious relationship.11 Sound, in its ephemeral form is viral. Sound and viruses can move in all directions, and keep challenging human control: viruses biologically, and sound culturally. These are the counter parts of resistance that push humans to evaluate their surroundings from a de-centered position, not from the view of the individual, but from the view of all things flowing, all things becoming.12
Writing is our earliest and, in terms of economics, most efficient form of recording and control of language (due to its relative easiness to produce). With writing, an uttered statement deemed ephemeral, and therefore unstable, can be evaluated based on a set of symbols we call letters, which create words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, chapters, books, and eventually libraries. The sequence of this development, especially the last two stages took hundreds of years; and libraries are now turning into digital archives.13 This was possible in part due to the concept of property. Intellectual property became crucial to the publishing and production of not only books, but also of music and the arts at large. Anything that would be produced with mechanical reproduction, which eventually turned into electronic and digital reproduction, has by default, at this point, a contention with copyright laws that remain unresolved. Thus, the aesthetics of sound, in term of the potential for free-flow which has been passed on to media at large, becomes a challenge to the control of property under capitalism. In short, while it is now accepted that we have always functioned as people who generate and regenerate meaning, what is different at the time of this writing as opposed to previous periods (particularly those before the rise of mechanical reproduction),14 is that we function under a pervasive concept of intellectual ownership. In contemporary times, things archived become property or negotiated under such paradigm in some way.
We could take any text that is available on the Web. But it serves best to take a well-known work, or a work that is considered unique in the way it was written. Literary works such as Ulysses by James Joyce, Moby Dick by Herman Melville, Beloved by Toni Morrison, or The Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison can all be found online, and are promising case studies due to the fact that they have been analyzed by many scholars, and taught in numerous classes.15 For this essay, I will share part of my ongoing research on a book that is not as widely taught as those mentioned, but was just as carefully written, and available will serve well as a good case study to understand how we may come to consider something to be produced specifically by a single person who in turn may claim it as intellectual property.
A single word search is likely to provide the most diverse result on Google with a dictionary definition of the word at the top of the page, which as we know is our basic building block in terms of composing phrases and actual sentences. What becomes apparent in this analysis is that the more specific the string of words, the more likely one is to reach a specific sample that may be deemed the original work of a particular person.16 This research, in effect, exposes not only how we create meaning, but also how we come to claim it as specific to a particular author. It is always based on the recognition of patterns; this is also applicable to all media, not just writing. Corporations who scan YouTube for infringement of copyright use a similar process for video and audio.17
Just like words are the building blocks of a written text, musical notes are the basic building blocks of music. Digital material such as videos, still images and texts uploaded to websites, blogs, databases and social media platforms online become the building blocks of contemporary global communication. Just like we can separate a written text into multiple pieces, from a book, to chapters, to paragraphs to sentences, to phrases, to words, to syllables and to each letter composing the written composition, digital technology similarly enables us to take apart any digitally produced work, to then repurpose segments as we see fit.